and pharmacological properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Balmkheera, Isopinnatal, Kigelin, Chemical constituents, Medicinal properties. Objective: Kigelia africana, a tropical tree, which has long been used in African . Analytical grade solvents (Fischer chemicals) were used for isolation and. cancer with drugs (pharmacotherapy) or with chemical compounds ( chemotherapy) in family comprises 21 species, of which Kigelia africana. (Lam. ) Benth is.
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The antioxidant potential of the oil was compared to that of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the root. UV and IR spectroscopic techniques were used to carry out partial characterization of the oil and extracts.
The antioxidant activity which correlated with the total phenolic content of the extracts was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the extracts. TAA was found to be higher in methanol extract at 0.
We hereby report for the first time the major component of the oil from the root of Kigelia pinnata to be elaidic acid It is a reported toxicant which thereby underscores the risk in the use of the plant in traditional therapies. Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage Ponnan et al. Although an excess of Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS oxidative stress can result in non-controlled oxidation and damage of cellular structures such as DNA, protein and membrane lipids.
It is believed that the presence of ROS is essential in cells as they can act as key signaling molecules for the activation of the stress-responses and defense pathways Halliwell, [ 19 ]; Foyer and Noctor, [ 17 ]. In humans, the plant polyphenols consumed through the diet are considered as effective protective agents against the ROS, which are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of aging and many degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers Virgili and Scaccini, [ 51 ]; Kris-Etherton et al.
Numerous kihelia studies have suggested a protective role of food polyphenols on human health Arts and Hollman, [ 5 ]. Recent studies have, however, stressed that the mechanisms of biological actions of polyphenols go beyond their ROS scavenging and metal chelating properties Halliwell et al.
The tree grows on riverbanks, wet areas along streams and on flood plains of Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, Guinea and Senegal.
The tree is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical regions for its decorative flowers and unusual fruit that conceived the name ‘sausage tree’ Roodt, [ 44 ]. The Bignoniaceae family is noted for the occurrence of iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, steroids, coumarins, saponins and caffeic acid in the fruits, stem, leaves and roots Akunyili and Houghton, [ 2 ]; Houghton et al.
Though a large number of plants worldwide show strong antioxidant activities Baratto et al. In view of this, we have investigated the in vitro antioxidant effect of these extracts by DPPH assay and examined the phytochemicals in each extract.
The plant root was selected for the study because of the reported phytochemicals which include iridoids, naphthoquinones and coumarins among others. The present study provides basic data on the natural antioxidant potential of Kigelia pinnata root for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries, and also offers scientific reference for the large scale usage and exploitation of Kigelia pinnata as a vital resource.
The root material was air dried and pulverized. Solvents were re-distilled before use.
Chemical composition and antioxidant potentials of Kigelia pinnata root oil and extracts
Identification of the volatile component was carried out using the peak enrichment technique of reference compounds and as final confirmation of the peak identification by GC-MS, their spectral data were compared with those of NIST library mass spectra. The scheme for the extraction is shown in Figure 1 Fig. The pulverized plant material weighing g was extracted exhaustively with n-hexane at room temperature for five days. The extract was decanted, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure using rotary evaporator to afford mg of a yellow oil which was coded KPRH.
The remaining plant material was subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate for five days. The ethyl acetate-extract was decanted, filtered using a Whatman No. Finally, the remaining extracted plant material was extracted again for five days with methanol. The methanol-extract was decanted, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to yield The extracts were stored in a cool dark place until further analysis.
A small portion of the dry extract was used for the phytochemical screening for compounds including tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, saponins, and steroids in accordance with methods described by Harborne [ 21 ]Trease and Evans [ 50 ] and Sofowora [ 48 ] with minor modifications.
The amount of phenolic compound in the root extracts of Kigelia pinnata was determined with Folin Ciocalteu reagent using the method of Ebrahimzadeh et al. The reducing powers of the extracts were evaluated according to the method of Oyaizu [ 40 ].
The mixture containing 2. The mixture was centrifuged at g for 10 min to collect the upper layer of the solution 2. The absorbance was then measured at nm against reference blank.
Higher absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates higher reductive potential. The antioxidant acivity was measured using DPPH assay. This spectrophotometric assay uses the stable radical 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH as a reagent Amarowicz et al.
New Constituents of Kigelia pinnata Leaves – SciAlert Responsive Version
The DPPH free radical is commercially available and it was prepared at a 0. The radical was protected from light. The absorbance at cyemicals was monitored in presence of different concentrations of extracts.
Blank experiment was also carried out to determine the absorbance of DPPH before interacting with the extract.
Absorbance was recorded to check the stability of the radical throughout the time of analysis. The compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass-spectral fragmentation patterns compared with those of reference compounds stored on the spectrometer database and the NIST library.
Post-hoc test analysis was done using the Duncan multiple comparison test. The phytochemical analysis conducted on the K. The result is as shown in Table 1 Tab. These phytochemicals are known to support bioactive activities in medicinal plants and may therefore be responsible for the antioxidant activities of the plant extracts. Tannins are generally known to be useful in the treatment of inflamed or ulcerated tissues and have remarkable activity in cancer prevention Ruch et al. Thus, the presence of these constituents in Kigelia pinnata partly supports the common traditional use of plant in the treatment of cancer.
Flavonoids have been shown to exhibit their actions through effects on membrane permeability, and by inhibition of membrane-bound enzymes such as the ATPase and phospholipase A2 Li et al. Flavonoids serve as health promoting compound as a results of its anion radicals Havsteen, [ 22 ]. Alkaloid was conscupiously absent in the root of the study plant. Alkaloids have been associated with medicinal uses for centuries and one of their common biological properties is their cytotoxicity Nobori et al.
The biological importance and toxicity of elaidic acid, a trans fatty acid have remained controversial. Some were of the opinion that trans fatty acids increased fragility of red blood cells, changed the aggregation of thrombocytes Ascherio et al. It was established that they caused lack of essential fatty acids Kummerow et al.
Lately, it has been reported that incorporation of trans fatty acids into the phospholipids of the membranes affected its properties and mainly the activity of enzymes attached to the membrane, in fact, in recent times a positive relation has been established between allergic diseases and trans fatty acid consumption Kritchevsky, [ 26 ]; Stender and Dyerberg, [ 49 ].
In view of the various reports on the toxicity of elaidic acid, the therapeutic effect of the plant should be weighed along side its toxicity when administered in folk medicine. Special attention may have to be paid to the extraction method. Other notable compounds that are present include palmitic acid Lapachol has been reportedly isolated from the root of the plant previously Govindachari et al.
Lapachol and derivatives as constituents of plant extracts are well documented for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antineoplasic activities Miranda et al. The aqueous and methanol extracts of T. Species that contain lapachol and several biogenetically related naphthoquinones e.
Other activities of lapachol and its derivatives include the prevention against Schistosoma mansoni cercarial skin penetration, Biomphalaria glabrata infection as well as forestalling embryo alteration in rats Maganha et al.
It is also reported for its antioxidant activities Wenceslau et al.
Chemical composition and antioxidant potentials of Kigelia pinnata root oil and extracts
The total phenolic content was also found to be chemivals in KPRE at 0. The reducing capacity of africanz extracts, another significant indicator of antioxidant activity was also found to be appreciable. Increasing absorbance indicates an increase in reductive ability. The results show that there was increase in the reductive capability of KPRH which peaked at around 0.
This activity may be connected with the antioxidant capability of the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the plant extracts Figure 5 Fig.
KPRM showed the peak activity at 0. The dose dependent trend observed for the KPRH could be as a result of synergistic free radical scavenging ability of compounds in the oil which apparently dampens the effect of the erucic acid. Kigelia pinnata root is rich in phytochemicals with proven antioxidant activities. The phytochemical analysis conducted on Kigelia pinnata extracts revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phlobatannins, phenolics, anthraquinones, terpenoids and saponins.
This study indicates that the ethyl acetate fraction of the plant root has high antioxidant activity against DPPH than the hexane and methanol extract. It is due to the presence of high content of phenolics, which could be the most effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stressors.
The structures of phenolic compounds which exhibited antioxidant activity in the ethyl acetate fraction would need to be elucidated. Though the plant is highly regarded for its unique medicinal potencies due to the presence of lapachol, squalene, naphthoquinones etc, the acricana of elaidic acid content in the oil calls for caution in the use of the plant in traditional medical therapy.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Adeyemi1 Essiet Akpan1 Charles B. Adeosun1 and Chemicalss A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 24; Accepted Nov This is an Open Access article distributed afrixana the following Assignment of Rights http: You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage Ponnan et al. Preparation of extract Kigella scheme for the extraction is shown in Figure 1 Fig. Open in a separate window. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts A small portion of the dry extract was used for the phytochemical screening for compounds including tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cbemicals glycosides, anthraquinone, saponins, and steroids in accordance with methods described by Harborne [ 21 ]Trease and Evans [ 50 ] and Sofowora [ 48 ] with minor modifications.
Determination of total phenolic composition The amount of phenolic compound in the root extracts of Kigelia pinnata was determined with Folin Ciocalteu reagent using the method of Ebrahimzadeh et al. Determination of reducing power The reducing powers of the extracts were evaluated according to the method of Oyaizu [ 40 ].
Results and Discussion Phytochemical screening The phytochemical analysis conducted on the K. The phytochemical components of Kigelia pinnata based on the preliminary extract screening. Total phenolic content and reducing power potentials of the extract The total phenolic content was also found to be higher in KPRE at 0. Free radical scavenging activities total and relative antioxidant activities The in vitro antioxidant activities of the plant extracts Figure 5 Fig.