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The anatomy and histology of the female genital system in Boophilus microplus are scarcely studied. In the present paper, the female genital system of this tick has been considered as a whole and morphological and functional interrelations between different structures and also some other related items has been presented.
Unfed and partially engorged females were employed in the study. The quality and resolution of images are remarkable because of the improvement by authors of a histological technique specially for arthropods. Se emplearon hembras no alimentadas y parcialmente ingurgitadas. The knowledge of these subjects is very important as a basic tool in all species in relation to morphological sciences and evolution, physiological events like ovulation, sexual behavior, maturation and mating, and also to research the interrelation tick-hemoparasite.
The structure of female genital system in Ixodidae consists of a single U-shaped tubular ovary in the posterior region of the body, paired and folded oviducts are in both extremes of the ovary joint into a common oviduct or uterus. The uterus opens into the vagina, which is divided in a cervical vagina and a vestibular vagina.
A seminal receptacle, absent in argasids 3,4 as well as the uterus, open also in the cervical vagina.
A pair of tubular accessory glands pours out their secretions at the level of the union of both cervical and vestibular vagina. Surrounding the vestibular vagina there is a glandular epithelium, the lobular accessory gland, found only in ixodid ticks 4.
The anatomy and histology of the female genital system in Boophilus microplus are scarcely studied; only it is possible to refer to articles about oviducts and fertilization 8,9 and studies of the ovary by Saito et al. In the present paper, the general objective is to consider the female genital system of this tick as a whole and to analyze the morphological and functional interrelations between different structures.
The quality and resolution of images are remarkable because of the improvement by authors of a histological technique specially for arthropods and for the employ of an original procedure for feminine tract dissection that makes it easier and saves time avoiding technical complications. Histological and dissection Techniques: Coloration was done with hematoxylin-eosine. Some serial slicing were performed transversely and other longitudinally in horizontal or in sagittal sense, this procedure permits a better comprehension of three-dimensional disposition of organs inside the arthropod.
Dissection of tick specimens was performed with an original method 13 allowing a faster and secure procedure that could be done in 10 to 15 minutes per tick with a great percentage of success and without loss of genital structure parts.
Unfed and partially engorged females of B.
ANATOMIA E HISTOLOGIA DEL SISTEMA REPRODUCTOR FEMENINO DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE)
As all schemes, it is a generalization from a number of individuals; reader ought to keep in mind that variations in each item from histtologia specimens are reproduttor a very frequent fact. Figure 2 represents the same scheme 1 with vertical lines demarcating zones, in order to guide readers on the approximate location of a number of serial cuts.
So, next photographs will represent an approach of the anatomical location of these shown structures in relation to these conventional lines.
Ovaryoviductsseminal receptacle and tubular accessory glands obtained by dissection of non-fed and fed, unmated and mated females are shown in Figures 34 and 5.
The histological structure of masulino with oocytes and pedicel cells is shown in figures 6 and 7. The ovary is composed by a layer of small epithelial cells with rounded nuclei surrounding the lumen, and oocytes in different developmental stages: Also, the degenerative stage VI has been described 5, Cells very similar to the epithelial ones form the pedicels.
Pedicel cells holding oocytes Masculinno and II stages masculkno cylindric with large elliptic nuclei occupying most of the cytoplasm, there are numerous round mitochondria as well as rough endoplasmic reticulum, instead, pedicel cells attaching oocytes IV and V show signs of degeneration Reprodutro Rhipicephalus sanguineusde Oliveira masculinno al.
Results of studies in Amblyomma triste by de Oliveira et al. Central structures of female genital system Oviducts: It is in communication with the cervical vagina by means of an epithelial folded muscular tube: In the cervical vagina Fig.
There are some mqsculino particularities in B. On the contrary, in B. This fact could facilitate the way for spermiophores to found the course toward the oviducts and ovary.
An anatomical view of one of TAG is shown in Fig. Also, the sagittal sections, and in close up of the genital pore and the final part of the vestibular vagina can be seen in Fig. The lobular accessory gland is also shown in Fig 12 ; it is an enlargement of the vestibular vaginal epithelium which produces a secretion for the initial waterproofing layer for the eggs and also it is the most likely source of the genital sex pheromone 4, Transversal sections of vestibular vagina appear in Fig.
Next transversal cuts Fig. In these images, all structures seem to be surrounded by circulatory sinus in fact they were never shown in images of B.
It is conspicuous the likeness of the images in all photographs and this fact discards the possibility of being a histological technic artifact. It is an organ only observed in ticks, it is located in the interior of the body cavity near the anterior end of the scutum 2,4. It is a paired structure formed histtologia globular or finger like sacs sometimes called horns and glandular tissue.
Different authors 1,2,3,4 have made a full description of this organ. When not in use, the organ is retracted within the anterior region of the body near the capitulum. When oviposition begins, the swollen structure is projected forward by hydrostatic pressure, the finger-like processes are everted from the body 4. The wax coat waterproofs the eggs and causes them to stick together 17 forming huge masses that also contribute to retard desiccation.
Copula and semen transport Male climbs over the back of the female and then slide down beneath the couple hiistologia for the genital pore 18,19 and put itself venter to venter with the female, grasping it with its legs Fig. The male bends its capitulum toward the female genital aperture and then introduces its chelicerae which protrude out of its shafts into the female genital pore 18,19, 20 ; both hypostome and palps briefly touch the surface of madculino female, receptors on the palps mediate repordutor perception, these sensilla are concentrated on the fourth segment of the palp on hard ticks A detail study of mating and sexual tick behavior could be read in Kiszewski et al.
Male introduces its chelicerae inside the female genital pore and then ejaculates into a sac, named ectospermatophore; inside itthere is another sac the endospermatophore full of inmature seminal cells named spermatids.
The male takes the ectospermatophore with its chelicerae by the neck of the sac and introduces it into the female genital pore These two appendices have been also described in other ticks and are characteristic of Ixodidae, whereas in Argasidae, there is only one Spermatids suffer a capacitation inside the seminal receptacle in order to complete maturation; already mature cells are called spermiophores Fig.
The minimum time required after the hiwtologia is performed is seven days. It has been suggested 9 that fertilization takes place in the internal cylinder which extends from the reprrodutor to the ovary itself. A contribution to the anatomy and histology of the brown ear aparelo Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Newman. Mem Entomol Soc South Africa. Oxford, ; reprodtor. Morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick Amblyomma cajennense Acari: Amblyomma triste Koch, Acari: Morphological description of the ovary and of vitellogenesis.
Functional analysis of metabolic and imnune proteins in the tick Ixodes ricinus by RNA interference. Regionalization of oviducts in Boophilus microplus Canestrini, Acari: Ixodidae and its potential significance for nistologia.
New histochemical and morphological findings in the female genital tract of Boophilus microplus Acari, Ixodidae: Morphological, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the ovary of the cattle-tick Boophilus microplus Canestrini, Acari: Schneider I, Rudinsky JA. Reproditor and histological changes in internal rprodutor of adult Tripodendron lineatum ; Gnathotrichus retusus and G.
Ann Entomol Soc Amer. Rev Cub Med Trop. Rev cub Cienc agric. Vitellogenesis in the tick Amblyomma triste Koch, Acari: Ixodidae Role for pedicel cells. Morphological characterization of the ovary and oocytes vitellogenesis of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, Acari: Assuring paternity in a promiscuous world: Feldman-Musham B, Borut S.
Copulation in ixodid ticks.
Symposium on reproduction of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. IV Reproduction in ticks Ixodoidea. Mating strategies and spermiogenesis in ixodid ticks. Recibido ; Aceptado